An introduction is available to explain more in detail what STMX is, what it is not, and how it is implemented.
For background information, Composable Memory Transactions is a very good – though a bit technical – explanation of memory transactions and how they are used and combined. For the interested reader, it also goes in deep detail on how to actually implement them.
Stable version – from Quicklisp
STMX is available from Quicklisp. The simplest way to obtain it is to first install Quicklisp then run these commands from REPL:
CL-USER> (ql:quickload "stmx") ;; lots of output... CL-USER> (use-package :stmx)
If all goes well, this will automatically download and install the stable branch of STMX and its dependencies:
Latest version – from GitHub
In case you want to use the “latest and greatest” version directly from the author, in order to get the newest features, improvements, bug fixes, and occasionally new bugs, you need to download it into your Quicklisp local-projects folder. Open a shell and run the commands:
$ cd ~/quicklisp/local-projects $ git clone git://github.com/cosmos72/stmx.git
then proceed as before – load a REPL and run:
CL-USER> (ql:quickload "stmx") ;; lots of output... CL-USER> (use-package :stmx)
If all goes well, it will automatically load STMX and its dependencies.
Note: unless you know what you are doing, do not try to load different STMX versions one after the other from the same REPL – strange things may happen.
Other versions – from Sourceforge
Stable versions of STMX are also available from Sourceforge
In case you get errors:
- check that Quicklisp is installed correctly, for example by executing at REPL:
CL-USER> (ql:quickload "closer-mop")
- if you tried to download the stable version from Quicklisp, check that your quicklisp is updated and knows about STMX:
CL-USER> (ql:system-apropos "stmx")
should print something like
If it doesn’t, you need to update Quicklisp as described here – search for “To get updated software” in the page.
- if you tried to download the latest version from GIT, check that you downloaded STMX creating an
stmx/folder inside your Quicklisp local-projects folder, usually
After loading STMX for the first time, it is recommended to run the test suite to check that everything works as expected. From the REPL, run:
CL-USER> (ql:quickload "stmx.test") ;; lots of output... CL-USER> (fiveam:run! 'stmx.test:suite) ;; even more output... Did 7133 checks. Pass: 7133 (100%) Skip: 0 ( 0%) Fail: 0 ( 0%)
(ql:quickload "stmx.test") intentionally works only after
(ql:quickload "stmx") has completed successfuly.
The test suite should report zero Skip and zero Fail; the number of Pass may vary. You are welcome to report any failure you get while running the test suite, please include in the report:
- operating system name and version (example: Debian GNU/Linux x86_64 version 7.0)
- Common Lisp implementation and version (example: SBCL 188.8.131.52.debian, x86_64)
- EXACT output produced by the test suite
- any other relevant information
See “Contacts, help, discussion” below for the preferred method to send the report.
STMX offers the following Lisp macros and functions, also heavily documented in the sources – remember
(describe 'some-symbol) at REPL.
TRANSACTIONALdeclares that a class is transactional, i.e. that its slots contain transactional data. Use it to wrap a class definition:
(transactional (defclass foo () ((value1 :type integer :initarg :value1 :initform 0) (value2 :type string :initarg :value2 :initform ""))))
Note: on some Common Lisp implementations (ABCL and possibly others) slot accessors are known to ignore by default the transactional machinery (implemented with MOP slot-value-using-class, if you wonder) causing all kind of errors on transactional classes. Even though usually this problem can be usually at least partially fixed with implementation-specific options, it is recommended to use
slot-valueinstead of slot accessors to read and write the slots of transactional classes or, even better, a macro that can be defined to use either
slot-valueor slot accessors.
ATOMICis the main macro: it wraps Lisp forms into an atomic memory transaction then executes them. For example, defining
(defun show-foo (obj) (declare (type foo obj)) (multiple-value-bind (value1 value2) (atomic (values (slot-value obj 'value1) (slot-value obj 'value2))) (format t "atomic function show-foo: foo contains ~S, ~S~%" value1 value2))) (defmethod set-foo ((obj foo) value1 value2) (declare (type integer value1) (type string value2)) (atomic (setf (slot-value obj 'value1) value1) (setf (slot-value obj 'value2) value2)) (format t "atomic method set-foo: foo now contains ~S, S~%" value1 value2))
SHOW-FOO will atomically read the slots VALUE1 and VALUE2 of a FOO instance, then print both. Note that
(format t ...)is outside the atomic block – more on this later.
SET-FOO will atomically set the slots VALUE1 and VALUE2 of a FOO instance.
Using these two functions, STMX guarantees that multiple threads accessing the same FOO instance will always see consistent values for both slots, i.e. SHOW-FOO will never see intermediate states of a transaction, where for example one slot has been updated by SET-FOO, but the other slot has not been updated yet.
This is the main feature of STMX: if an atomic block completes normally, it is assumed to be successful and it gets committed: all its writes to transactional memory become visible simultaneously to other threads. If instead an atomic block exits with a non-local control transfer (signals an error, throws, or invokes a
(go some-label)), it is assumed to be failed and it gets rolled back: all its writes to transactional memory are discarded.
Warning: in order to avoid deadlocks and conflicts while still reaching good performance, STMX may execute more than once the contents of an atomic block. Also, some instructions as
(retry)described below, explicitly cause an atomic block to be re-executed from the beginning. For this reasons, atomic blocks should not contain irreversible operations such as input/output. More details in the paragraph INPUT/OUTPUT DURING TRANSACTIONS below.
Note: STMX allows using transactional data both inside and outside atomic blocks, but be aware that accessing transactional data from outside atomic transactions is only intended for debugging purposes at the REPL: in a program it can cause a lot of problems, due to inconsistencies and due to other threads not being notified when a transactional memory location is updated. Future versions may remove this convenience hack and replace it with a cleaner, stricter mechanism. In a program, always make sure that all code that accesses transactional data is directly or indirectly executed inside an
TRANSACTIONdeclares that a method or function is an atomic memory transaction, and is actually just a macro that wraps the body of a function or method in an
(atomic ...)block. In the past, it was suggested as a more convenient alternative to
ATOMIC, but for various stylistic reasons the current recommendation is to avoid it. The main reason is that it encourages performing too many operations inside an atomic block, including irreversible ones as input/output, which has impredictable behaviour and should be really avoided. Examples:
(transaction (defun get-foo-values (obj) (declare (type foo obj)) (values (value1-of obj) (value2-of obj)))) (transaction (defmethod set-foo-values ((obj foo) value1 value2) (declare (type integer value1) (type string value2)) (setf (value1-of obj) value1) (setf (value2-of obj) value2) obj))
- Composing transactionsA key feature of
ATOMICis its composability: smaller transactions can be composed to create larger transactions. For example, the following three program fragments are perfectly equivalent:1) use
(atomic ...)to wrap into a single transaction many smaller
(defmethod swap-value1-of ((x foo) (y foo)) (format t "swapping value1 of ~S and ~S~%" x y) (atomic (rotatef (slot-value x 'value1) (slot-value y 'value1)))) (defmethod swap-value2-of ((x foo) (y foo)) (format t "swapping value2 of ~S and ~S~%" x y) (atomic (rotatef (slot-value x 'value2) (slot-value y 'value2)))) (defmethod swap-contents ((x foo) (y foo)) (atomic (swap-value1-of x y) (swap-value2-of x y)))
2) write redundant
(defmethod swap-contents ((x foo) (y foo)) (format t "swapping value1 and value2 of ~S and ~S~%" x y) (atomic (atomic (rotatef (slot-value x 'value1) (slot-value y 'value1))) (atomic (rotatef (slot-value x 'value2) (slot-value y 'value2)))))
3) write a single
(defmethod swap-contents ((x foo) (y foo)) (format t "swapping value1 and value2 of ~S and ~S~%" x y) (atomic (rotatef (slot-value x 'value1) (slot-value y 'value1)) (rotatef (slot-value x 'value2) (slot-value y 'value2))))
This composability property has an important consequence: transactional code, possibly written by different people for unrelated purposes, can be combined into larger transactions without modifying it – actually, without looking at the source code at all – as long as it all uses the same transactional library.
The STMX machinery will guarantee that transactions intermediate status, where an atomic block is half-way through its job, will never be visible to other transactions.
For example, it becomes trivial to write some code that atomically removes an object from a transactional container and adds it to another one: just write something like
(defmethod move-obj-from-a-to-b ((a some-container) (b another-container)) (atomic (let ((obj (take-obj-from-some-container a))) (put-obj-into-another-container obj b))))
and it will work as long as both container are transactional and use the same transaction library (in this case, STMX).
A lot of facts that in other concurrent programming paradigms can be great obstacles to such a solution become completely irrelevant when using transactions: it is irrelevant that the two containers may be unrelated classes, that the respective authors may not have anticipated such need in the APIs, that the internal details of the two implementations may be unknown to the author of code that combines them atomically (the
move-obj-from-a-to-bin the example), that other existing code in the program uses the same containers
bbut does not cooperate with
Style suggestion: in order to guarantee that all transactional memory accesses are performed inside an atomic block, it may be tempting to wrap each function or method body inside
(atomic ...). While safe and correct, this approach has a small performance penalty that performance-critical code may want to avoid by minimizing the number of
(atomic ...)blocks: it is enough to have a top-level atomic block that corresponds to the largest transaction that one wants to execute, and omit inner atomic blocks in the same or other functions called directly or indirectly from the top-level atomic block. In such case, it is strongly recommended to insert in the documentation of the functions accessing transactional memory without a direct atomic block a sentence like “This function should be always invoked from inside an STMX atomic block.”
RETRYis a function. It is more tricky to understand, but really powerful. As described in the summary, transactions will commit if they return normally, while they will rollback if they signal an error or condition.The
(retry)function call offers a third option: if invoked inside a transaction, it tells STMX that the transaction cannot complete immediately, for example because some necessary data is not currently available, and instructs STMX to wait until the data has changed, then re-execute the transaction from scratch.How does
(retry)know which data it should monitor for changes? Simple: it will monitor all transactional data (including slots of transactional objects) that was read since the beginning of the transaction and until
RETRY, reliable communication among threads is (hopefully) extremely simple to implement: a thread can read one (or more) transactional data, checking for values that some other thread will write there, and just
(retry)if no appropriate values are there yet.
ORELSEis a macro to execute two or more Lisp forms as alternatives in separate, nested transactions: if the first retries or detects an inconsistent read, the second will be executed and so on, until one transaction either commits (returns normally) or rollbacks (signals an error or condition). It can only be used inside a transaction.
NONBLOCKINGis an utility macro based on
ORELSEto convert a blocking transaction into another that returns NIL instead of waiting (and otherwise returns T followed by the values or the original transaction)
(nonblocking (x) (y) (z))
basically expands to
(orelse (values t (progn (x) (y) (z))) nil)
with the difference that
(nonblocking ...)actually captures all the values returned by the transaction, not just the first as in the example above.
WARNING: since transactions will be re-executed in case of conflicts with others and can also rollback or retry, all code inside an atomic block may be executed more times than expected, or may be executed when not expected.
Some transactional memory implementations, especially for statically-typed languages, forbid performing input/output during a transaction on the ground that I/O is not transactional: if a transaction sends an irreversible command to the outside world, there is no way to undo it in case the transaction rolls back, retries or conflicts.
STMX does not implement such restrictions, i.e. I/O and any other irreversible action can also be performed inside an atomic block. This means you are free to launch missiles during a transaction, and destroy the world when you shouldn’t have. You have been warned.
Despite the risk, there are at least two reasons for such a design choice:
- Forbidding I/O operations inside transactions, if done at all, should be done while compiling a program rather than while running it. In Common Lisp, neither of the two seems easy to implement.
- Common Lisp programs are often much more dynamic and flexible than programs in other languages, and programmers are trusted to know what they are doing. Such a prohibition does not seem to fit well with this spirit.
The typical solution for the above risk is: during a transaction, perform I/O only for debugging purposes, for example using a logging library as log4cl (or whatever is appropriate for your program), and queue any I/O operation in a transactional buffer. Then, invoke a separate function that first runs a transaction to atomically consume the buffer and only later, outside any transaction, performs the actual I/O operation.
An alternative solution is: during a transaction, instead of performing I/O pass to
AFTER-COMMIT a function that will perform I/O when executed. Note:
AFTER-COMMIT is described in Advanced usage below, read it carefully because functions executed by
AFTER-COMMIT have several restrictions on what they are allowed to do.
For those cases where the basic features are not sufficient, or where more control is desired during the execution of transactional code, some advanced features are available:
RUN-ATOMICis the function version of
ATOMIC: takes a single function argument and executes it in a transaction. This means the following two code snippets are equivalent:
(defvar a (make-instance 'foo)) (defvar b (make-instance 'foo)) (atomic (set-foo a 1 "abc") (set-foo b 2 "def"))
(defvar a (make-instance 'foo)) (defvar b (make-instance 'foo)) (defun init-foo-a-and-b () (set-foo a 1 "abc") (set-foo b 2 "def")) (run-atomic #'init-foo-a-and-b)
RUN-ORELSEis the function version of
ORELSE: it accepts any number of functions and executes them as alternatives in separate, nested transactions: if the first retries or is invalid, the second will be executed and so on, until one function either commits (returns normally) or rollbacks (signals an error or condition).If X, Y and Z are no-argument functions, the following two lines are equivalent:
(orelse (x) (y) (z)) (run-orelse #'x #'y #'z)
BEFORE-COMMITis a macro that registers Lisp forms to be executed later, just before the transaction tries to commit. It can be useful to normalize or simplify some transactional data, or perform any kind of bookkeeping activity.Be aware that the transaction is not yet committed when the forms registered with BEFORE-COMMIT run. This means in particular:
- There is no guarantee that the commit will succeed.
- If the forms signal an error when executed, the error is propagated to the caller, forms registered later with BEFORE-COMMIT are not executed, and the transaction rolls back.
- The forms can read and write normally to transactional memory, and in case of conflicts the whole transaction, including all forms registered with BEFORE-COMMIT, is re-executed from the beginning.
- The forms cannot (retry) – attempts to do so will signal an error. Starting a nested transaction and retrying inside that is acceptable, as long as the (retry) does not propagate outside the forms themselves.
AFTER-COMMITis another macro that registers Lisp forms to be executed later, but in this case they are executed immediately after the transaction has been successfully committed. It can be useful to notify some subsystem that for any reason cannot call
(retry)to be informed of changes in transactional memory – for example because it is some existing code that one does not wish to modify.In this case, the transaction is already committed when the forms registered with AFTER-COMMIT run, and (since STMX 1.3.2) the forms are executed outside any transaction. There are some limitations on what the forms can do:
- If the forms signal an error when executed, the error is propagated to the caller, forms registered later with AFTER-COMMIT are not executed, but the transaction remains committed.
- The forms are not executed inside a transaction: while it is certainly possible to explicitly run an
(atomic)block from them, doing so would probably defeat the purpose of AFTER-COMMIT and it may also cause a significant performance penalty.
CALL-BEFORE-COMMITis the function version of
BEFORE-COMMIT: it accepts a single function and registers it to be executed before the transaction tries to commit.
CALL-AFTER-COMMITis the function version of
AFTER-COMMIT: it accepts a single function and registers it to be executed after the transaction has been successfully committed.
TVARis the class implementing transactional memory behind the scenes. It is used internally by slots of transactional classes, but can also be used directly. Except if specified, all its functions and methods work both inside and outside transactions (remember that using transactional memory outside transactions is only intended for debugging purposes). Functions and methods:
(tvar [initial-value])Create a new TVAR, optionally bound to a value.
($-slot var)Get the value of VAR. Signals an error if VAR is not bound to any value. Note: before STMX 1.9.0, this function was named
(setf ($-slot var) value)Store VALUE into VAR. Note: before STMX 1.9.0, this function was named
(setf ($ var) value).
(bound-$? var)Return true if VAR is bound to some value.
(unbind-$ var)Unbind VAR from its value.
(value-of var)getter method, equivalent to
(setf (value-of var) value)setter method, equivalent to
(setf ($-slot var) value)
For programmers that want to squeeze the last CPU cycle out of STMX, there are also some more specialized functions:
($ var)Get the value of VAR. Return
+unbound-tvar+if VAR is not bound to any value.
(setf ($ var) value)Set the value of VAR. Identical to
(setf ($-slot var) value)and provided for simmetry with
See the example and util folder, which contains several examples and utilities built with STMX and should be relatively straightforward to understand. The folder util contains the following classes with related methods and functions, all in the STMX.UTIL package – for more details, use
(describe 'some-symbol) at REPL:
TCELLis the simplest transactional class. It is created with
(make-instance 'tcell [:value initial-value])and it can be empty or hold a single value.Methods:
TRY-PUT.When empty, taking a value will (retry) and wait until some other thread puts a value.When full, putting a value will (retry) and wait until some other thread removes the current value.Note: raw TVARs support exactly the same methods.
TCONSis a transactional cons cell. It is created with
(tcons first-value second-value).Methods:
(SETF TREST).Seldom used directly.
TLISTis a transactional list. It is created with
(tlist [values ...]).Methods:
TPOP.Normal lists are perfectly suitable for transactional use as long as they are not destructively modified, so TLIST is often unnecessary: it becomes needed only to support transactional destructive modifications.
TSTACKis a transactional first-in-last-out buffer. It is created with
(make-instance 'tstack)and it can be empty or hold unlimited values.Methods:
TRY-PUT.All methods append or remove values from the end, and putting a value always succeeds, even when other values are already present: the new value is simple appended at the end. For the rest, the methods behave as described for the
TFIFOis a transactional first-in-first-out buffer. It is created with
(make-instance 'tfifo)and it can be empty or hold unlimited values.Methods:
TRY-PUTappend values at the end,
TRY-TAKEget or remove them from the beginning, shifting the remaining values. For the rest, the methods behave as described for the
TCHANNELis a transactional multicast channel. It is created with
(make-instance 'tchannel), can contain unlimited values and it is write-only. To read from it, create a
TPORTas described below.Methods:
TRY-PUTappend values at the end, making them available to connected ports.
FULL?always returns nil, since a channel can contain unlimited values.
EMPTY?always returns t, since it is not possible to get values from a channel.It is possible to write into the same channel from multiple threads: added elements will be interleaved and made available to all connected ports.
TPORTis a transactional reader for
TCHANNEL. It is created with
(make-instance 'tport :channel some-channel). Ports do not support putting values, they are used to retrieve values from the channel they are connected to.Methods:
TRY-TAKEget or consume values previously added to the connected channel. All ports connected to the same channel receive all the values in the same order, and they consume values independently: taking a value from a port does not consume it from the other ports.
FULL?always returns t, since it is not possible to put values in a port.
EMPTY?returns t if some values are available to read or consume.
EMPTY!consumes all values currently available.It is also possible to use the same port from multiple threads: elements consumed by one thread will not be available to other threads using the same port.
THASH-TABLEis a transactional hash table. It is created with
(make-instance 'thash-table [:test #'some-test-function] [:hash #'some-hash-function]).Two differences from standard Common Lisp HASH-TABLE:
:testargument must be an actual function, not a symbol. The default is
- a hash function can be specified explicitly with
:hash #'some-hash-functionFor the usual test functions, i.e.
#'equalthe hash function can be omitted and a safe default (usually
#'sxhash) will be used. For other test functions, the hash function becomes mandatory.
Note: THASH-TABLE has been completely rewritten in STMX 1.3.3 and has now much better performance. Previously its methods contained
GHASHin their names.
TMAPis a transactional sorted map, backed by a red-black tree. It is created with
(make-instance 'tmap :pred compare-function)where COMPARE-FUNCTION must be a function accepting two arguments, KEY1 and KEY2, and returning t if KEY1 is smaller that KEY2. For numeric keys, typical COMPARE-FUNCTIONs are
#'>and the faster
#'fixnum>. For string keys, typical COMPARE-FUNCTIONs are
GMAP-PAIRS.Note: TMAP methods were renamed in STMX 1.3.3, they previously contained
GMAPin their names.
GHASH-TABLEis the non-transactional version of
THASH-TABLE. Not so interesting by itself, as Common Lisp offers a standard (and usually faster) HASH-TABLE implementation. It supports exactly the same methods as
RBMAPis the non-transactional version of
TMAP. Not so interesting by itself, as many other red-black trees implementations exist already on the net. It supports exactly the same methods as